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易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

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易經
het Hexagrammenboek

In case you prefer to ask a question or if you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex.






Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









12. Pi

Standstill (Stagnation)



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上九:倾否,先否后喜。

Nine at the top means:

The standstill comes to an end.
First standstill, then good fortune.



The standstill does not last forever. However, it does not cease of its own accord; the right man is needed to end it. This is the difference between a state of peace and a state of stagnation. Continuous effort is necessary to maintain peace: left to itself it would change into stagnation and disintegration. The time of disintegration, however, does not change back automatically to a condition of peace and prosperity; effort must be put forth in order to end it. This shows the creative attitude that man must take if the world is to be put in order.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:休否,大人吉。其亡其亡,系于苞桑。

Nine in the fifth place means:

Standstill is giving way.
Good fortune for the great man.
"What if it should fail, what if it should fail?"
In this way he ties it to a cluster of mulberry shoots.



The time undergoes a change. The right man, able to restore order, has arrived. Hence "good fortune." But such periods of transition are the very times in which we must fear and tremble. Success is assured only through greatest caution, which asks always, "What if it should fail?" When a mulberry bush is cut down, a number of unusually strong shoots sprout from the roots. Hence the image of tying something to a cluster of mulberry shoots is used to symbolize the way of making success certain.
Confucius says about this line:
Danger arises when a man feels secure in his position. Destruction threatens when a man seeks to preserve his worldly estate. Confusion develops when a man has put everything in order. Therefore the superior man does not forget danger in his security, not ruin when he is well established, nor confusion when his affairs are in order. In this way he gains personal safety and is able to protect the empire.
九四:有命,无咎,畴离祉。

Nine in the fourth place means:

He who acts at the command of the highest
Remains without blame.
Those of like mind partake of the blessing.



The time of standstill is nearing the point of change into its opposite. Whoever wishes to restore order must feel himself called to the task and have the necessary authority. A man who sets himself up a capable of creating order according to his own judgment could make mistakes and end in failure. But the man who is truly called to the task is favored by the conditions of the time, and all those of like mind will share in his blessing.
六三:包羞。

Six in the third place means:

They bear shame.



Inferior people who have risen to power illegitimately do not feel equal to the responsibility they have taken upon themselves. In their hearts they begin to be ashamed, although at first they do not show it outwardly. This marks a turn for the better.
the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
六二:包承。小人吉,大人否,亨。

Six in the second place means:

They bear and endure;
This means good fortune for inferior people.
The standstill serves to help the great man to attain success.



Inferior people are ready to flatter their superiors in a servile way. They would also endure the superior man if he would put an end to their confusion. This is fortunate for them. But the great man calmly bears the consequences of the standstill. He does not mingle with the crowd of the inferior; that is not his place. By his willingness to suffer personally he insures the success of his fundamental principles.
初六:拔茅茹,以其汇,贞吉亨。

Six at the beginning means:

When ribbon grass is pulled up, the sod comes with it.
Each according to his kind.
Perseverance brings good fortune and success.



The text is almost the same as that of the first line of the preceding hexagram, but with a contrary meaning. In the latter a man is drawing another along with him on the road to an official career; here a man is drawing another with him into retirement form public life. This is why the text says here, "Perseverance brings good fortune and success," and not "Undertakings bring good fortune." If it becomes impossible to make our influence count, it is only by retirement that we spare ourselves humiliation. Success in a higher sense can be ours, because we know how to safeguard the value of our personalities.
the Sign of hexagram Standstill (Stagnation) wis:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Qian , the Creative, the heaven
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

This hexagram is the opposite of the preceding one. Heaven is above, drawing farther and farther away, while the earth below sinks farther into the depths. The creative powers are not in relation. It is a time of standstill and decline. This hexagram is linked with the seventh month (August-September), when the year has passed its zenith and autumnal decay is setting in.

The sequence:
Things cannot remain forever united; hence there follows the hexagram of Standstill.

This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one. Therefore the movements of the trigrams diverge. The trigram Qian above withdraws always farther upward, and Kun below sinks farther and farther down. The two nuclear trigrams, Xun, gentleness, and Gen, Keeping Still, also characterize the hexagram. These trigrams form the hexagram Gu, Work that has been Spoiled (18), and in the latter too have the meaning of standstill. The hexagram Pi is linked with the seventh month (August–September).

The sequence:
Things cannot remain forever united; hence there follows the hexagram of Standstill.

This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one. Therefore the movements of the trigrams diverge. The trigram Qian above withdraws always farther upward, and Kun below sinks farther and farther down. The two nuclear trigrams, Xun, gentleness, and Gen, Keeping Still, also characterize the hexagram. These trigrams form the hexagram Gu, Work that has been Spoiled (18), and in the latter too have the meaning of standstill. The hexagram Pi is linked with the seventh month (August–September).

Miscellaneous notes:
The hexagrams of Standstill and Peace are opposed in their natures.
the Judgement for hexagram Standstill (Stagnation) wis:

否之匪人,不利君子贞,大往小来。

Standstill. Evil people do not further
The perseverance of the superior man.
The great departs; the small approaches.



Heaven and earth are out of communion and all things are benumbed. What is above has no relation to what is below, and on earth confusion and disorder prevail. The dark power is within, the light power is without. Weakness is within, harshness without. Within are the inferior, and without are the superior. The way of inferior people is in ascent; the way of superior people is one the decline. But the superior people do not allow themselves to be turned from their principles. If the possibility of exerting influence is closed to them, they nevertheless remain faithful to their principles and withdraw into seclusion.

Commentary on the Decision:

否之匪人,不利君子贞。大往小来,则是天地不交,而万物不通也;上下不交,而天下无邦也。内阴而外阳,内柔而外刚,内小人而外君子。小人道长,君子道消也。

“Evil people of the time of Standstill do not further the perseverance of the superior man. The great departs; the small approaches.
”Thus heaven and earth do not unite, and all beings fail to achieve union.
Upper and lower do not unite, and in the world, states go down to ruin.
The shadowy is within, the light without; weakness is within, firmness without; the inferior is within, the superior without. The way of the inferior is waxing, the way of the superior is waning.



Point for point, these conditions are the opposite of those in the preceding hexagram. Although we are dealing with cosmic conditions, the cause is nevertheless to be sought in the wrong course taken by man. It is man who spoils conditions—aside, naturally, from the regular phenomena of decline occurring in the normal course of life as well as of the year. When heaven and earth are disunited, life in nature stagnates. When those above and those below are disunited, political and social life stagnate. Within, at the center, there should be light; instead, the dark is there, and light is pushed to the outside. Man is inwardly weak and outwardly hard; inferior men are at the center of government, and the superior men are forced to the periphery. All this indicates that the way of the inferior man is on the increase, while that of the superior man is in decrease—just as the dark lines enter the hexagram from below and press upward, and the strong lines withdraw upward.
the Image going with hexagram Standstill (Stagnation) wis:

天地不交,否;君子以俭德辟难,不可荣以禄。

Heaven and earth do not unite:
The image of Standstill.
Thus the superior man falls back upon his inner worth
In order to escape the difficulties.
He does not permit himself to be honored with revenue.



When, owing to the influence of inferior men, mutual mistrust prevails in public life, fruitful activity is rendered impossible, because the fundaments are wrong. Therefore the superior man knows what he must do under such circumstances; he does not allow himself to be tempted by dazzling offers to take part in public activities. This would only expose him to danger, since he cannot assent to the meanness of the others. He therefore hides his worth and withdraws into seclusion.




the nuclear hexagram:

53. Jian
Development (Gradual Progress)

D
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Qian , the Creative, the heaven
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

This hexagram is the opposite of the preceding one. Heaven is above, drawing farther and farther away, while the earth below sinks farther into the depths. The creative powers are not in relation. It is a time of standstill and decline. This hexagram is linked with the seventh month (August-September), when the year has passed its zenith and autumnal decay is setting in.

The sequence:
Things cannot remain forever united; hence there follows the hexagram of Standstill.

This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one. Therefore the movements of the trigrams diverge. The trigram Qian above withdraws always farther upward, and Kun below sinks farther and farther down. The two nuclear trigrams, Xun, gentleness, and Gen, Keeping Still, also characterize the hexagram. These trigrams form the hexagram Gu, Work that has been Spoiled (18), and in the latter too have the meaning of standstill. The hexagram Pi is linked with the seventh month (August–September).

The sequence:
Things cannot remain forever united; hence there follows the hexagram of Standstill.

This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one. Therefore the movements of the trigrams diverge. The trigram Qian above withdraws always farther upward, and Kun below sinks farther and farther down. The two nuclear trigrams, Xun, gentleness, and Gen, Keeping Still, also characterize the hexagram. These trigrams form the hexagram Gu, Work that has been Spoiled (18), and in the latter too have the meaning of standstill. The hexagram Pi is linked with the seventh month (August–September).

Miscellaneous notes:
The hexagrams of Standstill and Peace are opposed in their natures.


the Judgement:

否之匪人,不利君子贞,大往小来。

Standstill. Evil people do not further
The perseverance of the superior man.
The great departs; the small approaches.



Heaven and earth are out of communion and all things are benumbed. What is above has no relation to what is below, and on earth confusion and disorder prevail. The dark power is within, the light power is without. Weakness is within, harshness without. Within are the inferior, and without are the superior. The way of inferior people is in ascent; the way of superior people is one the decline. But the superior people do not allow themselves to be turned from their principles. If the possibility of exerting influence is closed to them, they nevertheless remain faithful to their principles and withdraw into seclusion.

Commentary on the Decision:

否之匪人,不利君子贞。大往小来,则是天地不交,而万物不通也;上下不交,而天下无邦也。内阴而外阳,内柔而外刚,内小人而外君子。小人道长,君子道消也。

“Evil people of the time of Standstill do not further the perseverance of the superior man. The great departs; the small approaches.
”Thus heaven and earth do not unite, and all beings fail to achieve union.
Upper and lower do not unite, and in the world, states go down to ruin.
The shadowy is within, the light without; weakness is within, firmness without; the inferior is within, the superior without. The way of the inferior is waxing, the way of the superior is waning.



Point for point, these conditions are the opposite of those in the preceding hexagram. Although we are dealing with cosmic conditions, the cause is nevertheless to be sought in the wrong course taken by man. It is man who spoils conditions—aside, naturally, from the regular phenomena of decline occurring in the normal course of life as well as of the year. When heaven and earth are disunited, life in nature stagnates. When those above and those below are disunited, political and social life stagnate. Within, at the center, there should be light; instead, the dark is there, and light is pushed to the outside. Man is inwardly weak and outwardly hard; inferior men are at the center of government, and the superior men are forced to the periphery. All this indicates that the way of the inferior man is on the increase, while that of the superior man is in decrease—just as the dark lines enter the hexagram from below and press upward, and the strong lines withdraw upward.


the Image:

天地不交,否;君子以俭德辟难,不可荣以禄。

Heaven and earth do not unite:
The image of Standstill.
Thus the superior man falls back upon his inner worth
In order to escape the difficulties.
He does not permit himself to be honored with revenue.



When, owing to the influence of inferior men, mutual mistrust prevails in public life, fruitful activity is rendered impossible, because the fundaments are wrong. Therefore the superior man knows what he must do under such circumstances; he does not allow himself to be tempted by dazzling offers to take part in public activities. This would only expose him to danger, since he cannot assent to the meanness of the others. He therefore hides his worth and withdraws into seclusion.


the Lines:


上九:倾否,先否后喜。

Nine at the top means:

The standstill comes to an end.
First standstill, then good fortune.



The standstill does not last forever. However, it does not cease of its own accord; the right man is needed to end it. This is the difference between a state of peace and a state of stagnation. Continuous effort is necessary to maintain peace: left to itself it would change into stagnation and disintegration. The time of disintegration, however, does not change back automatically to a condition of peace and prosperity; effort must be put forth in order to end it. This shows the creative attitude that man must take if the world is to be put in order.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:休否,大人吉。其亡其亡,系于苞桑。

Nine in the fifth place means:

Standstill is giving way.
Good fortune for the great man.
"What if it should fail, what if it should fail?"
In this way he ties it to a cluster of mulberry shoots.



The time undergoes a change. The right man, able to restore order, has arrived. Hence "good fortune." But such periods of transition are the very times in which we must fear and tremble. Success is assured only through greatest caution, which asks always, "What if it should fail?" When a mulberry bush is cut down, a number of unusually strong shoots sprout from the roots. Hence the image of tying something to a cluster of mulberry shoots is used to symbolize the way of making success certain.
Confucius says about this line:
Danger arises when a man feels secure in his position. Destruction threatens when a man seeks to preserve his worldly estate. Confusion develops when a man has put everything in order. Therefore the superior man does not forget danger in his security, not ruin when he is well established, nor confusion when his affairs are in order. In this way he gains personal safety and is able to protect the empire.


九四:有命,无咎,畴离祉。

Nine in the fourth place means:

He who acts at the command of the highest
Remains without blame.
Those of like mind partake of the blessing.



The time of standstill is nearing the point of change into its opposite. Whoever wishes to restore order must feel himself called to the task and have the necessary authority. A man who sets himself up a capable of creating order according to his own judgment could make mistakes and end in failure. But the man who is truly called to the task is favored by the conditions of the time, and all those of like mind will share in his blessing.


六三:包羞。

Six in the third place means:

They bear shame.



Inferior people who have risen to power illegitimately do not feel equal to the responsibility they have taken upon themselves. In their hearts they begin to be ashamed, although at first they do not show it outwardly. This marks a turn for the better.


the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
六二:包承。小人吉,大人否,亨。

Six in the second place means:

They bear and endure;
This means good fortune for inferior people.
The standstill serves to help the great man to attain success.



Inferior people are ready to flatter their superiors in a servile way. They would also endure the superior man if he would put an end to their confusion. This is fortunate for them. But the great man calmly bears the consequences of the standstill. He does not mingle with the crowd of the inferior; that is not his place. By his willingness to suffer personally he insures the success of his fundamental principles.


初六:拔茅茹,以其汇,贞吉亨。

Six at the beginning means:

When ribbon grass is pulled up, the sod comes with it.
Each according to his kind.
Perseverance brings good fortune and success.



The text is almost the same as that of the first line of the preceding hexagram, but with a contrary meaning. In the latter a man is drawing another along with him on the road to an official career; here a man is drawing another with him into retirement form public life. This is why the text says here, "Perseverance brings good fortune and success," and not "Undertakings bring good fortune." If it becomes impossible to make our influence count, it is only by retirement that we spare ourselves humiliation. Success in a higher sense can be ours, because we know how to safeguard the value of our personalities.