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易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

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het Hexagrammenboek

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Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









24. Fu

Return (the Turning Point)



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上六:迷复,凶,有灾眚。用行师,终有大败,以其国君,凶;至于十年,不克征。

Six at the top means:

Missing the return. Misfortune.
Misfortune from within and without.
If armies are set marching in this way,
One will in the end suffer a great defeat,
Disastrous for the ruler of the country.
For ten years
It will not be possible to attack again.



If a man misses the right time for return, he meets with misfortune. The misfortune has its inner cause in a wrong attitude toward the world. The misfortune coming upon him for without results from this wrong attitude. What is pictured here is blind obstinacy and the judgment that is visited upon it.
六五:敦复,无悔。

Six in the fifth place means:

Noblehearted return. No remorse.



When the time for return has come, a man should not take shelter in trivial excuses, but should look within and examine himself. And if he has done something wrong he should make a noblehearted resolve to confess his fault. No one will regret having taken this road.
六四:中行独复。

Six in the fourth place means:

Walking in the midst of others,
One returns alone.



A man is in a society composed of inferior people, but is connected spiritually with a strong and good friend, and this makes him turn back alone. Although nothing is said of reward and punishment, this return is certainly favorable, for such a resolve to choose the good brings its own reward.
六三:频复,厉无咎。

Six in the third place means:

Repeated return. Danger. No blame.



There are people of a certain inner instability who feel a constant urge to reverse themselves. There is danger in continually deserting the good because of uncontrolled desires, then turning back to it again because of a better resolution. However, since this does not lead to habituation in evil, a general inclination to overcome the defect is not wholly excluded.
六二:休复,吉。

Six in the second place means:

Quiet return. Good fortune.



Return always calls for a decision and is an act of self-mastery. It is made easier if a man is in good company. If he can bring himself to put aside pride and follow the example of good men, good fortune results.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
初九:不远复,无祗悔,元吉。

Nine at the beginning means:

Return from a short distance.
No need for remorse.
Great good fortune.



Slight digressions from the good cannot be avoided, but one must turn back in time, before going too far. This is especially important in the development of character; every faintly evil thought must be put aside immediately, before it goes too far and takes root in the mind. Then there is no cause for remorse, and all goes well.
the Sign of hexagram Return (the Turning Point) 6is:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

The idea of a turning point arises from the fact that after the dark lines have pushed all of the light lines upward and out of the hexagram, another light line enters the hexagram from below. The time of darkness is past. The winter solstice brings the victory of light. This hexagram is linked with the eleventh month, the month of the solstice (December-January).

The sequence:
Things cannot be destroyed once and for all. When what is above is completely split apart, it returns below. Hence there follows the hexagram of Return.

Miscellaneous notes:
Return means coming back.

Appended judgments:
Return is the stem of character. Return is small, yet different from external things. Return leads to self-knowledge.
The hexagram of Return, applied to character formation, contains various suggestions. The light principle returns: thus the hexagram counsels turning away from the confusion of external things, turning back to one’s inner light. There, in the depths of the soul, one sees the Divine, the One. It is indeed only germinal, no more than a beginning, a potentiality, but as such clearly to be distinguished from all objects. To know this One means to know oneself in relation to the cosmic forces. For this One is the ascending force of life in nature and in man.
This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one, and the movement tends very strongly upward from below - from the trigram Zhen - going through the sinking trigram Kun.
the Judgement for hexagram Return (the Turning Point) 6is:

复:亨。出入无疾,朋来无咎。反复其道,七日来复,利有攸往。

Return. Success.
Going out and coming in without error.
Friends come without blame.
To and fro goes the way.
On the seventh day comes return.
It furthers one to have somewhere to go.



After a time of decay comes the turning point. The powerful light that has been banished returns. There is movement, but it is not brought about by force. The upper trigram K'un is characterized by devotion; thus the movement is natural, arising spontaneously. For this reason the transformation of the old becomes easy. The old is discarded and the new is introduced. Both measures accord with the time; therefore no harm results. Societies of people sharing the same views are formed. But since these groups come together in full public knowledge and are in harmony with the time, all selfish separatist tendencies are excluded, and no mistake is made. The idea of Return is based on the course of nature. The movement is cyclic, and the course completes itself. Therefore it is not necessary to hasten anything artificially. Everything comes of itself at the appointed time. This is the meaning of heaven and earth.
All movements are accomplished in six stages, and the seventh brings return. Thus the winter solstice, with which the decline of the year begins, comes in the seventh month after the summer solstice; so too sunrise comes in the seventh double hour after sunset. Therefore seven is the number of the young light, and it arises when six, the number of the great darkness, is increased by one. In this way the state of rest gives place to movement.

Commentary on the Decision:

复亨;刚反,动而以顺行,是以出入无疾,朋来无咎。反复其道,七日来复,天行也。利有攸往,刚长也。复其见天地之心乎?

“Return has success.” The firm returns.
Movement and action through devotion. Therefore, “Going out and coming in without error.”
“Friends come without blame. To and fro goes the way. On the seventh day comes return.” This is the course of heaven.
“It furthers one to have somewhere to go.” The firm is on the increase.
In the hexagram of Return one sees the mind of heaven and earth.



This hexagram expresses the idea that the light force is the creative principle of heaven and earth. It is an eternal cyclic movement, from which life comes forth again just at the moment when it appears to have been completely vanquished. Through the re-entrance of the yang line into the hexagram below, movement develops (Zhen, the lower trigram), and this movement acts through devotion (Kun, the upper trigram). Going out and coming in are without error. The yang force has indeed gone (cf. the foregoing hexagram, Bo), but like a fruit falling to earth, it has not disappeared without a trace; it has left an effect behind. This effect shows itself in the re-entrance of the yang line. The friends who come are either the other yang lines about to enter the hexagram after this first line (according to Chengzi (1032-1085)), or the five yin lines, which meet the yang line cordially. The way of yang goes to and fro, up and down. After the light force begins to diminish in Gou, Coming to Meet (44), it returns again in the hexagram Fu, after seven changes.“It furthers one to have somewhere to go,” that is, to undertake something. Both this sentence and the image of the friends occur in the text of the second hexagram, Kun, The Receptive.
the Image going with hexagram Return (the Turning Point) 6is:

雷在地中,复;先王以至日闭关,商旅不行,后不省方。

Thunder within the earth:
The image of The Turning Point.
Thus the kings of antiquity closed the passes
At the time of solstice.
Merchants and strangers did not go about,
And the ruler
Did not travel through the provinces.



The winter solstice has always been celebrated in China as the resting time of the year - a custom that survives in the time of rest observed at the new year. In winter the life energy, symbolized by thunder, the Arousing, is still underground. Movement is just at its beginning; therefore it must be strengthened by rest so that it will not be dissipated by being used prematurely. This principle, i.e., of allowing energy that is renewing itself to be reinforced by rest, applies to all similar situations. The return of health after illness, the return of understanding after an estrangement: everything must be treated tenderly and with care at the beginning, so that the return may lead to a flowering.




the nuclear hexagram:

2. Kun
the Receptive

@
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

The idea of a turning point arises from the fact that after the dark lines have pushed all of the light lines upward and out of the hexagram, another light line enters the hexagram from below. The time of darkness is past. The winter solstice brings the victory of light. This hexagram is linked with the eleventh month, the month of the solstice (December-January).

The sequence:
Things cannot be destroyed once and for all. When what is above is completely split apart, it returns below. Hence there follows the hexagram of Return.

Miscellaneous notes:
Return means coming back.

Appended judgments:
Return is the stem of character. Return is small, yet different from external things. Return leads to self-knowledge.
The hexagram of Return, applied to character formation, contains various suggestions. The light principle returns: thus the hexagram counsels turning away from the confusion of external things, turning back to one’s inner light. There, in the depths of the soul, one sees the Divine, the One. It is indeed only germinal, no more than a beginning, a potentiality, but as such clearly to be distinguished from all objects. To know this One means to know oneself in relation to the cosmic forces. For this One is the ascending force of life in nature and in man.
This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one, and the movement tends very strongly upward from below - from the trigram Zhen - going through the sinking trigram Kun.


the Judgement:

复:亨。出入无疾,朋来无咎。反复其道,七日来复,利有攸往。

Return. Success.
Going out and coming in without error.
Friends come without blame.
To and fro goes the way.
On the seventh day comes return.
It furthers one to have somewhere to go.



After a time of decay comes the turning point. The powerful light that has been banished returns. There is movement, but it is not brought about by force. The upper trigram K'un is characterized by devotion; thus the movement is natural, arising spontaneously. For this reason the transformation of the old becomes easy. The old is discarded and the new is introduced. Both measures accord with the time; therefore no harm results. Societies of people sharing the same views are formed. But since these groups come together in full public knowledge and are in harmony with the time, all selfish separatist tendencies are excluded, and no mistake is made. The idea of Return is based on the course of nature. The movement is cyclic, and the course completes itself. Therefore it is not necessary to hasten anything artificially. Everything comes of itself at the appointed time. This is the meaning of heaven and earth.
All movements are accomplished in six stages, and the seventh brings return. Thus the winter solstice, with which the decline of the year begins, comes in the seventh month after the summer solstice; so too sunrise comes in the seventh double hour after sunset. Therefore seven is the number of the young light, and it arises when six, the number of the great darkness, is increased by one. In this way the state of rest gives place to movement.

Commentary on the Decision:

复亨;刚反,动而以顺行,是以出入无疾,朋来无咎。反复其道,七日来复,天行也。利有攸往,刚长也。复其见天地之心乎?

“Return has success.” The firm returns.
Movement and action through devotion. Therefore, “Going out and coming in without error.”
“Friends come without blame. To and fro goes the way. On the seventh day comes return.” This is the course of heaven.
“It furthers one to have somewhere to go.” The firm is on the increase.
In the hexagram of Return one sees the mind of heaven and earth.
 


This hexagram expresses the idea that the light force is the creative principle of heaven and earth. It is an eternal cyclic movement, from which life comes forth again just at the moment when it appears to have been completely vanquished. Through the re-entrance of the yang line into the hexagram below, movement develops (Zhen, the lower trigram), and this movement acts through devotion (Kun, the upper trigram). Going out and coming in are without error. The yang force has indeed gone (cf. the foregoing hexagram, Bo), but like a fruit falling to earth, it has not disappeared without a trace; it has left an effect behind. This effect shows itself in the re-entrance of the yang line. The friends who come are either the other yang lines about to enter the hexagram after this first line (according to Chengzi (1032-1085)), or the five yin lines, which meet the yang line cordially. The way of yang goes to and fro, up and down. After the light force begins to diminish in Gou, Coming to Meet (44), it returns again in the hexagram Fu, after seven changes.“It furthers one to have somewhere to go,” that is, to undertake something. Both this sentence and the image of the friends occur in the text of the second hexagram, Kun, The Receptive.


the Image:

雷在地中,复;先王以至日闭关,商旅不行,后不省方。

Thunder within the earth:
The image of The Turning Point.
Thus the kings of antiquity closed the passes
At the time of solstice.
Merchants and strangers did not go about,
And the ruler
Did not travel through the provinces.



The winter solstice has always been celebrated in China as the resting time of the year - a custom that survives in the time of rest observed at the new year. In winter the life energy, symbolized by thunder, the Arousing, is still underground. Movement is just at its beginning; therefore it must be strengthened by rest so that it will not be dissipated by being used prematurely. This principle, i.e., of allowing energy that is renewing itself to be reinforced by rest, applies to all similar situations. The return of health after illness, the return of understanding after an estrangement: everything must be treated tenderly and with care at the beginning, so that the return may lead to a flowering.


the Lines:


上六:迷复,凶,有灾眚。用行师,终有大败,以其国君,凶;至于十年,不克征。

Six at the top means:

Missing the return. Misfortune.
Misfortune from within and without.
If armies are set marching in this way,
One will in the end suffer a great defeat,
Disastrous for the ruler of the country.
For ten years
It will not be possible to attack again.



If a man misses the right time for return, he meets with misfortune. The misfortune has its inner cause in a wrong attitude toward the world. The misfortune coming upon him for without results from this wrong attitude. What is pictured here is blind obstinacy and the judgment that is visited upon it.


六五:敦复,无悔。

Six in the fifth place means:

Noblehearted return. No remorse.



When the time for return has come, a man should not take shelter in trivial excuses, but should look within and examine himself. And if he has done something wrong he should make a noblehearted resolve to confess his fault. No one will regret having taken this road.


六四:中行独复。

Six in the fourth place means:

Walking in the midst of others,
One returns alone.



A man is in a society composed of inferior people, but is connected spiritually with a strong and good friend, and this makes him turn back alone. Although nothing is said of reward and punishment, this return is certainly favorable, for such a resolve to choose the good brings its own reward.


六三:频复,厉无咎。

Six in the third place means:

Repeated return. Danger. No blame.



There are people of a certain inner instability who feel a constant urge to reverse themselves. There is danger in continually deserting the good because of uncontrolled desires, then turning back to it again because of a better resolution. However, since this does not lead to habituation in evil, a general inclination to overcome the defect is not wholly excluded.


六二:休复,吉。

Six in the second place means:

Quiet return. Good fortune.



Return always calls for a decision and is an act of self-mastery. It is made easier if a man is in good company. If he can bring himself to put aside pride and follow the example of good men, good fortune results.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
初九:不远复,无祗悔,元吉。

Nine at the beginning means:

Return from a short distance.
No need for remorse.
Great good fortune.



Slight digressions from the good cannot be avoided, but one must turn back in time, before going too far. This is especially important in the development of character; every faintly evil thought must be put aside immediately, before it goes too far and takes root in the mind. Then there is no cause for remorse, and all goes well.