home
my Question jounal
search for a hexagram ask a question draw a hexagram
what is the Yijing? the Ten Wings foreword by Jung preface by Wilhelm Dutch flag about us
support our site
Fu Xi Earlier Heaven bagua arrangement
易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

Ancient Chinese coins

易經
het Hexagrammenboek

In case you prefer to ask a question or if you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex.






Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









53. Jian

Development (Gradual Progress)



<
上九:鸿渐于陆,其羽可用为仪,吉。

Nine at the top means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the clouds heights.
Its feathers can be used for the sacred dance.
Good fortune.




Here life comes to its end. A man's work stands completed. The path rises high toward heaven, like the flight of wild geese when they have left the earth far behind. There they fly, keeping to the order of their flight in strict formation. And if their feathers fall, they can serve as ornaments in the sacred dance pantomimes performed in the temples. Thus the life of a man who has perfected himself is a bright light for the people of earth, who look up to him as an example.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:鸿渐于陵,妇三岁不孕,终莫之胜,吉。

Nine in the fifth place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the summit.
For three years the woman has no child.
In the end nothing can hinder her.
Good fortune.




The summit is a high place. In a high position one easily becomes isolated. One is misjudged by the very person on whom one is dependent-the woman by her husband, the official by his superior. This is the work of deceitful persons who have wormed their way in. The result is that relationships remain sterile, and nothing is accomplished. But in the course of further development, such misunderstandings are cleared away, and reconciliation is achieved after all.
六四:鸿渐于木,或得其桷,无咎。

Six in the fourth place means:

The wild goose goes gradually draws near the tree.
Perhaps it will find a flat branch. No blame.




A tree is not a suitable place for a wild goose. But if it is clever, it will find a flat branch on which it can get a footing. A man's life too, in the course of its development, often brings him into inappropriate situations, in which he finds it difficult to hold his own without danger. Then it is important to be sensible and yielding. This enables him to discover a safe place in which life can go on, although he may be surrounded by danger.
九三:鸿渐于陆,夫征不复,妇孕不育,凶;利御寇。

Nine in the third place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the plateau.
The man goes forth and does not return.
The woman carries a child but does not bring it forth.
Misfortune.
It furthers one to fight off robbers.




The high plateau is dry and unsuitable for the wild goose. If it goes there, it has lost its way and gone too far. This is contrary to the law of development.
It is the same in human life. If we do not let things develop quietly but plunge of our own choice too rashly into a struggle, misfortune results. A man jeopardizes his own life, and his family perishes thereby. However, this is not all necessary; it is only the result of transgressing the law of natural development. If one does not willfully provoke a conflict, but confines himself to vigorously maintaining his own position and to warding off unjustified attacks, all goes well.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六二:鸿渐于磐,饮食衎衎,吉。

Six in the second place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the cliff.
Eating and drinking in peace and concord.
Good fortune.




The cliff is a safe place on shore. The development has gone a step further. The initial insecurity has been overcome, and a safe position in life has been found, giving one enough to live on. This first success, opening up a path to activity, brings a certain joyousness of mood, and one goes to meet the future reassured.
It is said of the wild goose that it calls to its comrades whenever it finds food; this is the symbol of peace and concord in good fortune. A man does not want to keep his good luck for himself only, but is ready to share it with others.
初六:鸿渐于干,小子厉,有言,无咎。

Six at the beginning means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the shore.
The young son is in danger.
There is talk. No blame.




All the individual lines in this hexagram symbolize the gradual flight of the wild goose. The wild goose is the symbol of conjugal fidelity, because it is believed that this bird never takes another mate after the death of the first.
The initial line suggests the first resting place in the flight of water birds from the water to the heights. The shore is reached. The situation is that of a lonely young man who is just starting out to make his way in life. Since no one comes to help him, his first steps are slow and hesitant, and he is surrounded by danger. Naturally he is subjected to much criticism. But these very difficulties keep him from being too hasty, and his progress is successful.
the Sign of hexagram Development (Gradual Progress) Dis:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

This hexagram is made up of Xun (wood, penetration) above, i.e., without, and Gen (mountain, stillness) below, i.e., within. A tree on a mountain develops slowly according to the law of its being and consequently stands firmly rooted. This gives the idea of a development that proceeds gradually, step by step. The attributes of the trigrams also point to this: within is tranquillity, which guards against precipitate actions, and without is penetration, which makes development and progress possible.

The sequence:
Things cannot stop forever; hence there follows the hexagram of Development. Development means to progress.

Miscellaneous notes:

Development shows how the maiden is given in marriage and in this must await the actions of the man.

Like the hexagrams Jin, Progress (35), and Sheng, Pushing Upward (46), this hexagram pictures progress. But while Progress is like the rising sun spreading light over the earth, and Sheng shows a tree pushing up through the earth, what is meant here is slow growth such as that of a tree on a mountainside. In another aspect the hexagram is one of those dealing with the relation of man and woman, and therefore most closely related to the hexagram Xian, Influence (31). In the latter the youngest daughter is being influenced by the youngest son. The effect is quick and mutual, expressing the natural attraction between the sexes. In the present hexagram, the mature elder daughter is being influenced by the youngest son; hence in this instance the emphasis is rather on the mores with their restraining effect. Thus we are reminded here of the gradual development in the case of marriage, which in the course of time came to require the carrying out of six different rites (cf. the next hexagram).
the Judgement for hexagram Development (Gradual Progress) Dis:

渐:女归吉,利贞。

Development. The maiden
Is given in marriage.
Good fortune.
Perseverance furthers.




The development of events that leads to a girl's following a man to his home proceeds slowly. The various formalities must be disposed of before the marriage takes place. This principle of gradual development can be applied to other situations as well; it is always applicable where it is a matter of correct relationships of co-operation, as for instance in the appointment of an official. The development must be allowed to take its proper course. Hasty action would not be wise. This is also true, finally, of any effort to exert influence on others, for here too the essential factor is a correct way of development through cultivation of one's own personality. No influence such as that exerted by agitators has a lasting effect. Within the personality too, development must follow the same course if lasting results are to be achieved.
Gentleness that is adaptable, but at the same time penetrating, is the outer form that should proceed from inner calm.
The very gradualness of the development makes it necessary to have perseverance, for perseverance alone prevents slow progress from dwindling to nothing.

Commentary on the Decision:

渐之进也,女归吉也。进得位,往有功也。进以正,可以正邦也。其位刚,得中也。止而巽,动不穷也。

The progress of Development means the good fortune of the maiden’s marriage.
Progressing and thereby attaining the right place: going brings success.
Progressing in what is right - thus one may set the country in order.
His place is firm, and he has attained the middle. Keeping still and penetrating: this makes the movement inexhaustible.




The meaning of the name of the hexagram is explained in terms of the first part of the Judgment, the rest of which is elucidated on the basis of the structure of the hexagram. The two rulers of the hexagram, the second and the fifth line, show a progressing and therefore attain their correct and natural places. Attainment of a proper place bespeaks a correct attitude of mind; there by undertakings meet with success, and the state can be set in order. The emphasis here is on the combination of personal moral effort and such strength as is required to set the state in order. The ruler of the hexagram, standing in the fifth place - that of command - combining strength and central correctness, is especially well qualified for achieving successful results of this kind. The latter part of the commentary deals with the two primary trigrams and points out that the inexhaustible source of progress is inner calm combined with adaptability to circumstances. Calm is the attribute of the inner trigram, Gen, adaptability that of the outer trigram, Xun.
the Image going with hexagram Development (Gradual Progress) Dis:

山上有木,渐;君子以居贤德,善俗。

On the mountain, a tree:
The image of Development.
Thus the superior man abides in dignity and virtue,
In order to improve the mores.




The tree on the mountain is visible from afar, and its development influences the landscape of the entire region. It does not shoot up like a swamp plant; its growth proceeds gradually. Thus also the work of influencing people can be only gradual. No sudden influence or awakening is of lasting effect. Progress must be quite gradual, and in order to obtain such progress in public opinion and in the mores of the people, it is necessary for the personality to acquire influence and weight. This comes about through careful and constant work on one's own moral development.




the nuclear hexagram:
未济
64. Wei Ji
Before Completion

P
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain

This hexagram is made up of Xun (wood, penetration) above, i.e., without, and Gen (mountain, stillness) below, i.e., within. A tree on a mountain develops slowly according to the law of its being and consequently stands firmly rooted. This gives the idea of a development that proceeds gradually, step by step. The attributes of the trigrams also point to this: within is tranquillity, which guards against precipitate actions, and without is penetration, which makes development and progress possible.

The sequence:
Things cannot stop forever; hence there follows the hexagram of Development. Development means to progress.

Miscellaneous notes:

Development shows how the maiden is given in marriage and in this must await the actions of the man.

Like the hexagrams Jin, Progress (35), and Sheng, Pushing Upward (46), this hexagram pictures progress. But while Progress is like the rising sun spreading light over the earth, and Sheng shows a tree pushing up through the earth, what is meant here is slow growth such as that of a tree on a mountainside. In another aspect the hexagram is one of those dealing with the relation of man and woman, and therefore most closely related to the hexagram Xian, Influence (31). In the latter the youngest daughter is being influenced by the youngest son. The effect is quick and mutual, expressing the natural attraction between the sexes. In the present hexagram, the mature elder daughter is being influenced by the youngest son; hence in this instance the emphasis is rather on the mores with their restraining effect. Thus we are reminded here of the gradual development in the case of marriage, which in the course of time came to require the carrying out of six different rites (cf. the next hexagram).


the Judgement:

渐:女归吉,利贞。

Development. The maiden
Is given in marriage.
Good fortune.
Perseverance furthers.




The development of events that leads to a girl's following a man to his home proceeds slowly. The various formalities must be disposed of before the marriage takes place. This principle of gradual development can be applied to other situations as well; it is always applicable where it is a matter of correct relationships of co-operation, as for instance in the appointment of an official. The development must be allowed to take its proper course. Hasty action would not be wise. This is also true, finally, of any effort to exert influence on others, for here too the essential factor is a correct way of development through cultivation of one's own personality. No influence such as that exerted by agitators has a lasting effect. Within the personality too, development must follow the same course if lasting results are to be achieved.
Gentleness that is adaptable, but at the same time penetrating, is the outer form that should proceed from inner calm.
The very gradualness of the development makes it necessary to have perseverance, for perseverance alone prevents slow progress from dwindling to nothing.

Commentary on the Decision:

渐之进也,女归吉也。进得位,往有功也。进以正,可以正邦也。其位刚,得中也。止而巽,动不穷也。

The progress of Development means the good fortune of the maiden’s marriage.
Progressing and thereby attaining the right place: going brings success.
Progressing in what is right - thus one may set the country in order.
His place is firm, and he has attained the middle. Keeping still and penetrating: this makes the movement inexhaustible.




The meaning of the name of the hexagram is explained in terms of the first part of the Judgment, the rest of which is elucidated on the basis of the structure of the hexagram. The two rulers of the hexagram, the second and the fifth line, show a progressing and therefore attain their correct and natural places. Attainment of a proper place bespeaks a correct attitude of mind; there by undertakings meet with success, and the state can be set in order. The emphasis here is on the combination of personal moral effort and such strength as is required to set the state in order. The ruler of the hexagram, standing in the fifth place - that of command - combining strength and central correctness, is especially well qualified for achieving successful results of this kind. The latter part of the commentary deals with the two primary trigrams and points out that the inexhaustible source of progress is inner calm combined with adaptability to circumstances. Calm is the attribute of the inner trigram, Gen, adaptability that of the outer trigram, Xun.


the Image:

山上有木,渐;君子以居贤德,善俗。

On the mountain, a tree:
The image of Development.
Thus the superior man abides in dignity and virtue,
In order to improve the mores.




The tree on the mountain is visible from afar, and its development influences the landscape of the entire region. It does not shoot up like a swamp plant; its growth proceeds gradually. Thus also the work of influencing people can be only gradual. No sudden influence or awakening is of lasting effect. Progress must be quite gradual, and in order to obtain such progress in public opinion and in the mores of the people, it is necessary for the personality to acquire influence and weight. This comes about through careful and constant work on one's own moral development.


the Lines:


上九:鸿渐于陆,其羽可用为仪,吉。

Nine at the top means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the clouds heights.
Its feathers can be used for the sacred dance.
Good fortune.




Here life comes to its end. A man's work stands completed. The path rises high toward heaven, like the flight of wild geese when they have left the earth far behind. There they fly, keeping to the order of their flight in strict formation. And if their feathers fall, they can serve as ornaments in the sacred dance pantomimes performed in the temples. Thus the life of a man who has perfected himself is a bright light for the people of earth, who look up to him as an example.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:鸿渐于陵,妇三岁不孕,终莫之胜,吉。

Nine in the fifth place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the summit.
For three years the woman has no child.
In the end nothing can hinder her.
Good fortune.




The summit is a high place. In a high position one easily becomes isolated. One is misjudged by the very person on whom one is dependent-the woman by her husband, the official by his superior. This is the work of deceitful persons who have wormed their way in. The result is that relationships remain sterile, and nothing is accomplished. But in the course of further development, such misunderstandings are cleared away, and reconciliation is achieved after all.


六四:鸿渐于木,或得其桷,无咎。

Six in the fourth place means:

The wild goose goes gradually draws near the tree.
Perhaps it will find a flat branch. No blame.




A tree is not a suitable place for a wild goose. But if it is clever, it will find a flat branch on which it can get a footing. A man's life too, in the course of its development, often brings him into inappropriate situations, in which he finds it difficult to hold his own without danger. Then it is important to be sensible and yielding. This enables him to discover a safe place in which life can go on, although he may be surrounded by danger.


九三:鸿渐于陆,夫征不复,妇孕不育,凶;利御寇。

Nine in the third place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the plateau.
The man goes forth and does not return.
The woman carries a child but does not bring it forth.
Misfortune.
It furthers one to fight off robbers.




The high plateau is dry and unsuitable for the wild goose. If it goes there, it has lost its way and gone too far. This is contrary to the law of development.
It is the same in human life. If we do not let things develop quietly but plunge of our own choice too rashly into a struggle, misfortune results. A man jeopardizes his own life, and his family perishes thereby. However, this is not all necessary; it is only the result of transgressing the law of natural development. If one does not willfully provoke a conflict, but confines himself to vigorously maintaining his own position and to warding off unjustified attacks, all goes well.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六二:鸿渐于磐,饮食衎衎,吉。

Six in the second place means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the cliff.
Eating and drinking in peace and concord.
Good fortune.




The cliff is a safe place on shore. The development has gone a step further. The initial insecurity has been overcome, and a safe position in life has been found, giving one enough to live on. This first success, opening up a path to activity, brings a certain joyousness of mood, and one goes to meet the future reassured.
It is said of the wild goose that it calls to its comrades whenever it finds food; this is the symbol of peace and concord in good fortune. A man does not want to keep his good luck for himself only, but is ready to share it with others.


初六:鸿渐于干,小子厉,有言,无咎。

Six at the beginning means:

The wild goose gradually draws near the shore.
The young son is in danger.
There is talk. No blame.




All the individual lines in this hexagram symbolize the gradual flight of the wild goose. The wild goose is the symbol of conjugal fidelity, because it is believed that this bird never takes another mate after the death of the first.
The initial line suggests the first resting place in the flight of water birds from the water to the heights. The shore is reached. The situation is that of a lonely young man who is just starting out to make his way in life. Since no one comes to help him, his first steps are slow and hesitant, and he is surrounded by danger. Naturally he is subjected to much criticism. But these very difficulties keep him from being too hasty, and his progress is successful.