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易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

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易經
het Hexagrammenboek

In case you prefer to ask a question or if you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex.






Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









47. Kun

Oppression (Exhaustion)



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上六:困于葛藟,于臲卼,曰动悔。有悔,征吉。

Six at the top means:

He is oppressed by creeping vines.
He moves uncertainly and says, "Movement brings remorse."
If one feels remorse over this and makes a start,
Good fortune comes.



A man is oppressed by bonds that can easily be broken. The distress is drawing to an end. But he is still irresolute; he is still influenced by the previous condition and fears that he may have cause for regret if he makes a move. But as soon as he grasps the situation, changes this mental attitude, and makes a firm decision, he masters the oppression.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:劓刖,困于赤绂,乃徐有说,利用祭祀。

Nine in the fifth place means:

His nose and feet are cut off.

Oppression at the hands of the man with the purple knee bands.

Joy comes softly.

It furthers one to make offerings and libations.



An individual who has the good of mankind at heart is oppressed from above and below (this is the meaning of the cutting off of nose an defeat). He finds no help among the people whose duty it would be to aid in the work of rescue (ministers wore purple knee bands). But little by little, things take a turn for the better. Until that time, he should turn to God, firm in his inner composure, and pray and offer sacrifice for the general well-being.
九四:来徐徐,困于金车,吝,有终。

Nine in the fourth place means:

He comes very quietly, oppressed in a golden carriage.
Humiliation, but the end is reached.



A well-to-do man sees the need of the lower classes and would like very much to be of help. But instead of proceeding with speed and energy where their is need, he begins in a hesitant and measured way. Then he encounters obstructions. Powerful and wealthy acquaintances draw him into their circle; he has to do as they do and cannot withdraw from them. Hence he finds himself in great embarrassment. But the trouble is transitory. The original strength of his nature offsets the mistake he has made, and the goal is reached.
六三:困于石,据于蒺蔾,入于其宫,不见其妻,凶。

Six in the third place means:

A man permits himself to be oppressed by stone,
And leans on thorns and thistles.
He enters the house and does not see his wife.
Misfortune.



This shows a man who is restless and indecisive in times of adversity. At first he wants to push ahead, then he encounters obstructions that, it is true, mean oppression only when recklessly dealt with. He butts his head against a wall and in consequence feels himself oppressed by the wall. Then he leans on things that have in themselves no stability and that are merely a hazard for him who leans on them. Thereupon he turns back irresolutely and retires into his house, only to find, as a fresh disappointment, that his wife is not there.
Confucius says about this line:
If a man permits himself to be oppressed by something that ought not to oppress him, his name will certainly be disgraced. If he leans on things upon which one cannot lean, his life will certainly be endangered. For him who is in disgrace and danger, the hour of death draws near; how can he then still see his wife?
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九二:困于酒食,朱绂方来,利用享祀,征凶,无咎。

Nine in the second place means:

One is oppressed while at meat and drink.
The man with the scarlet knee bands is just coming.
It furthers one to offer sacrifice.
To set forth brings misfortune.
No blame.



This pictures a state of inner oppression. Externally, all is well, one has meat and drink. But one is exhausted by the commonplaces of life, and there seems to be no way of escape. Then help comes from a high place. A prince - in ancient China princes wore scarlet knee bands - is in search of able helpers. But there are still obstructions to be overcome. Therefore it is important to meet these obstructions in the visible realm by offerings and prayer. To set forth without being prepared would be disastrous, though not morally wrong. Here a disagreeable situation must be overcome by patience of spirit.
初六:臀困于株木,入于幽谷,三岁不觌。

Six at the beginning means:

One sits oppressed under a bare tree
And strays into a gloomy valley.
For three years one sees nothing.



When adversity befalls a man, it is important above all things for him to be strong and to overcome the trouble inwardly. If he is weak, the trouble overwhelms him. Instead of proceeding on his way, he remains sitting under a bare tree and falls ever more deeply into gloom and melancholy. This makes the situation only more and more hopeless. Such an attitude comes from an inner delusion that he must by all means overcome.
the Sign of hexagram Oppression (Exhaustion) Mis:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Dui , Trigram Dui, the Joyous, the lake
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

The lake is above, water below; the lake is empty, dried up. Exhaustion is expressed in yet another way: at the top, a dark line is holding down two light line; below, a light line is hemmed in between two dark ones. The upper trigram belongs to the principle of darkness, the lower to the principle of light. Thus everywhere superior men are oppressed and held in restraint by inferior men.

The sequence:
If one pushes upward without stopping, he is sure to meet with oppression. Hence there follows the hexagram of Oppression.

Miscellaneous notes:
Oppression means an encounter.
Oppression is something that happens by chance. The fact that there is no water in the lake is due to certain exceptional conditions.

Appended judgments:
Oppression is the test of character. Oppression leads to perplexity and thereby to success. Through Oppression one learns to lessen one’s rancor.

The hexagram is full of danger in its structure—a lake, with an abyss opening under it, through which the water flows off downward. Wind and fire, as the nuclear trigrams, are likewise at work, oppressing the water from within. The forces trend in opposite directions. Kan, the lower trigram, sinks downward, while Dui, the upper, evaporates upward. As regards the lines, the yang element is oppressed by the yin element. The two upper strong lines are hemmed in by two weak ones, and so likewise is the middle line of the lower trigram.
the Judgement for hexagram Oppression (Exhaustion) Mis:

困:亨,贞,大人吉,无咎,有言不信。

Oppression. Success. Perseverance.
The great man brings about good fortune.
No blame.
When one has something to say,
It is not believed.



Times of adversity are the reverse of times of success, but they can lead to success if they; befall the right man. When a strong man meets with adversity, he remains cheerful despite all danger, and this cheerfulness is the source of later successes; it is that stability which is stronger than fate. He who lets his spirit be broken by exhaustion certainly has no success. But if adversity only bends a man, it creates in him a power to react that is bound in time to manifest itself. No inferior man is capable of this. Only the great man brings about goof fortune and remains blameless. It is true that for the time being outward influence is denied him, because his words have no effect. Therefore in times of adversity it is important to be strong within and sparing of words.

Commentary on the Decision:

困,刚掩也。险以说,困而不失其所,亨;其唯君子乎?贞大人吉,以刚中也。有言不信,尚口乃穷也。

Oppression. The firm is hemmed in. Danger and joyousness. The superior man alone is capable of being oppressed without losing the power to succeed.
“Perseverance. The great man brings about good fortune,” because he is firm and central.
“When one has something to say, it is not believed.” He who considers the mouth important falls into perplexity.



The name of the hexagram is explained in its structure, because in various ways the firm lines are hemmed in between dark ones. Success is achieved in the time of Oppression by maintaining cheerfulness (upper trigram Dui) in face of danger (lower trigram Kan). The firm and central lines that in each case indicate the great man are the rulers of the hexagram in the second and the fifth place. The trigram Dui also suggests speech. But one gets no hearing; the trigram Kan means earache, hence disinclination to listen.
the Image going with hexagram Oppression (Exhaustion) Mis:

泽无水,困;君子以致命遂志。

There is not water in the lake:
The image of Exhaustion.
Thus the superior man stakes his life
On following his will.



When the water has flowed out below, the lake must dry up and become exhausted. That is fate. This symbolizes an adverse fate in human life. In such times there is nothing a man can do but acquiesce in his fate and remain true to himself. This concerns the deepest stratum of his being, for this alone is superior to all external fate.




the nuclear hexagram:
家人
37. Jia Ren
the Family (The Clan)

n
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Dui , Trigram Dui, the Joyous, the lake
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water
   below Trigram Kan , the Abysmal, the water

The lake is above, water below; the lake is empty, dried up. Exhaustion is expressed in yet another way: at the top, a dark line is holding down two light line; below, a light line is hemmed in between two dark ones. The upper trigram belongs to the principle of darkness, the lower to the principle of light. Thus everywhere superior men are oppressed and held in restraint by inferior men.

The sequence:
If one pushes upward without stopping, he is sure to meet with oppression. Hence there follows the hexagram of Oppression.

Miscellaneous notes:
Oppression means an encounter.
Oppression is something that happens by chance. The fact that there is no water in the lake is due to certain exceptional conditions.

Appended judgments:
Oppression is the test of character. Oppression leads to perplexity and thereby to success. Through Oppression one learns to lessen one’s rancor.

The hexagram is full of danger in its structure—a lake, with an abyss opening under it, through which the water flows off downward. Wind and fire, as the nuclear trigrams, are likewise at work, oppressing the water from within. The forces trend in opposite directions. Kan, the lower trigram, sinks downward, while Dui, the upper, evaporates upward. As regards the lines, the yang element is oppressed by the yin element. The two upper strong lines are hemmed in by two weak ones, and so likewise is the middle line of the lower trigram.


the Judgement:

困:亨,贞,大人吉,无咎,有言不信。

Oppression. Success. Perseverance.
The great man brings about good fortune.
No blame.
When one has something to say,
It is not believed.



Times of adversity are the reverse of times of success, but they can lead to success if they; befall the right man. When a strong man meets with adversity, he remains cheerful despite all danger, and this cheerfulness is the source of later successes; it is that stability which is stronger than fate. He who lets his spirit be broken by exhaustion certainly has no success. But if adversity only bends a man, it creates in him a power to react that is bound in time to manifest itself. No inferior man is capable of this. Only the great man brings about goof fortune and remains blameless. It is true that for the time being outward influence is denied him, because his words have no effect. Therefore in times of adversity it is important to be strong within and sparing of words.

Commentary on the Decision:
 
困,刚掩也。险以说,困而不失其所,亨;其唯君子乎?贞大人吉,以刚中也。有言不信,尚口乃穷也。

Oppression. The firm is hemmed in. Danger and joyousness. The superior man alone is capable of being oppressed without losing the power to succeed.
“Perseverance. The great man brings about good fortune,” because he is firm and central.
“When one has something to say, it is not believed.” He who considers the mouth important falls into perplexity.
 


The name of the hexagram is explained in its structure, because in various ways the firm lines are hemmed in between dark ones. Success is achieved in the time of Oppression by maintaining cheerfulness (upper trigram Dui) in face of danger (lower trigram Kan). The firm and central lines that in each case indicate the great man are the rulers of the hexagram in the second and the fifth place. The trigram Dui also suggests speech. But one gets no hearing; the trigram Kan means earache, hence disinclination to listen.


the Image:

泽无水,困;君子以致命遂志。

There is not water in the lake:
The image of Exhaustion.
Thus the superior man stakes his life
On following his will.



When the water has flowed out below, the lake must dry up and become exhausted. That is fate. This symbolizes an adverse fate in human life. In such times there is nothing a man can do but acquiesce in his fate and remain true to himself. This concerns the deepest stratum of his being, for this alone is superior to all external fate.


the Lines:


上六:困于葛藟,于臲卼,曰动悔。有悔,征吉。

Six at the top means:

He is oppressed by creeping vines.
He moves uncertainly and says, "Movement brings remorse."
If one feels remorse over this and makes a start,
Good fortune comes.



A man is oppressed by bonds that can easily be broken. The distress is drawing to an end. But he is still irresolute; he is still influenced by the previous condition and fears that he may have cause for regret if he makes a move. But as soon as he grasps the situation, changes this mental attitude, and makes a firm decision, he masters the oppression.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:劓刖,困于赤绂,乃徐有说,利用祭祀。

Nine in the fifth place means:

His nose and feet are cut off.

Oppression at the hands of the man with the purple knee bands.

Joy comes softly.

It furthers one to make offerings and libations.



An individual who has the good of mankind at heart is oppressed from above and below (this is the meaning of the cutting off of nose an defeat). He finds no help among the people whose duty it would be to aid in the work of rescue (ministers wore purple knee bands). But little by little, things take a turn for the better. Until that time, he should turn to God, firm in his inner composure, and pray and offer sacrifice for the general well-being.


九四:来徐徐,困于金车,吝,有终。

Nine in the fourth place means:

He comes very quietly, oppressed in a golden carriage.
Humiliation, but the end is reached.



A well-to-do man sees the need of the lower classes and would like very much to be of help. But instead of proceeding with speed and energy where their is need, he begins in a hesitant and measured way. Then he encounters obstructions. Powerful and wealthy acquaintances draw him into their circle; he has to do as they do and cannot withdraw from them. Hence he finds himself in great embarrassment. But the trouble is transitory. The original strength of his nature offsets the mistake he has made, and the goal is reached.


六三:困于石,据于蒺蔾,入于其宫,不见其妻,凶。

Six in the third place means:

A man permits himself to be oppressed by stone,
And leans on thorns and thistles.
He enters the house and does not see his wife.
Misfortune.



This shows a man who is restless and indecisive in times of adversity. At first he wants to push ahead, then he encounters obstructions that, it is true, mean oppression only when recklessly dealt with. He butts his head against a wall and in consequence feels himself oppressed by the wall. Then he leans on things that have in themselves no stability and that are merely a hazard for him who leans on them. Thereupon he turns back irresolutely and retires into his house, only to find, as a fresh disappointment, that his wife is not there.
Confucius says about this line:
If a man permits himself to be oppressed by something that ought not to oppress him, his name will certainly be disgraced. If he leans on things upon which one cannot lean, his life will certainly be endangered. For him who is in disgrace and danger, the hour of death draws near; how can he then still see his wife?


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九二:困于酒食,朱绂方来,利用享祀,征凶,无咎。

Nine in the second place means:

One is oppressed while at meat and drink.
The man with the scarlet knee bands is just coming.
It furthers one to offer sacrifice.
To set forth brings misfortune.
No blame.



This pictures a state of inner oppression. Externally, all is well, one has meat and drink. But one is exhausted by the commonplaces of life, and there seems to be no way of escape. Then help comes from a high place. A prince - in ancient China princes wore scarlet knee bands - is in search of able helpers. But there are still obstructions to be overcome. Therefore it is important to meet these obstructions in the visible realm by offerings and prayer. To set forth without being prepared would be disastrous, though not morally wrong. Here a disagreeable situation must be overcome by patience of spirit.


初六:臀困于株木,入于幽谷,三岁不觌。

Six at the beginning means:

One sits oppressed under a bare tree
And strays into a gloomy valley.
For three years one sees nothing.



When adversity befalls a man, it is important above all things for him to be strong and to overcome the trouble inwardly. If he is weak, the trouble overwhelms him. Instead of proceeding on his way, he remains sitting under a bare tree and falls ever more deeply into gloom and melancholy. This makes the situation only more and more hopeless. Such an attitude comes from an inner delusion that he must by all means overcome.