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易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

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het Hexagrammenboek

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Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









55. Feng

Abundance (Fullness)



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上六:丰其屋,蔀其家,闚其户,阒其无人,三岁不觌,凶。

Six at the top means:

His house is in a state of abundance.
He screens off his family.
He peers through the gate
And no longer perceives anyone.
For three years he sees nothing.
Misfortune.




This describes a man who because of his arrogance and obstinacy attains the opposite of what he strives for. He seeks abundance and splendor for his dwelling. He wishes at all odds to be master in his house, which so alienates his family that in the end he finds himself completely isolated.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六五:来章,有庆誉,吉。

Six in the fifth place means:

Lines are coming,
Blessing and fame draw near.
Good fortune.




The ruler is modest and therefore open to the counsel of able men. Thus he is surrounded by men who suggest to him the lines of action. This brings blessing, fame, and good fortune to him and all the people.
九四:丰其蔀,日中见斗,遇其夷主,吉。

Nine in the fourth place means:

The curtain is of such fullness
That the polestars can be seen at noon.
He meets his ruler, who is of like kind.
Good fortune.




Here the darkness is already decreasing, therefore interrelated elements come together. Here too the complement must be found - the necessary wisdom to complement joy of action. Then everything will go well. The complementary factor postulated here is the reverse of the one in the first line. In the latter, wisdom is to be complemented by energy, while here energy is complemented by wisdom.
九三:丰其沛,日中见沬,折其右肱,无咎。

Nine in the third place means:

The underbrush is of such abundance
That the small stars can be seen at noon.
He breaks his right arm . No blame.




The image is that of a progressive covering over of the sun. Here the eclipse reaches totality, therefore even the small stars can be seen at noon.
In the sphere of social relationships, this means that the prince is now so eclipsed that even the most insignificant persons can push themselves into the foreground. This makes it impossible for an able man, though he might be the right hand of the ruler, to undertake anything. It is as though his arm were broken, but he is not to blame for being thus hindered in action.
六二:丰其蔀,日中见斗,往得疑疾,有孚发若,吉。

Six in the second place means:

The curtain is of such fullness
That the polestars can be seen at noon.
Through going one meets with mistrust and hate.
If one rouses him through truth,
Good fortune comes.




It often happens that plots and party intrigues, which have the darkening effect of an eclipse of the sun, come between a ruler intent on great achievement and the man who could effect great undertakings. Then, instead of the sun, we see the northern stars in the sky. The ruler is overshadowed by a party that has usurped power. If a man at such a time were to try to take energetic measures, he would encounter only mistrust and envy, which would prohibit all movement. The essential thing then is to hold inwardly to the power of truth, which in the end is so strong that it exerts an invisible influence on the ruler, so that all goes well.
初九:遇其配主,虽旬无咎,往有尚。

Nine at the beginning means:

When a man meets his destined ruler,
They can be together ten days,
And it is not a mistake.
Going meets with recognition.




To bring about a time of abundance, a union of clarity with energetic movement is needed. Two individuals possessed of these two attributes are suited to each other, and even if they spend an entire cycle of time together during the period of abundance, it will not be too long, nor is it a mistake. Therefore one may go forth, in order to make one's influence felt; it will meet with recognition.
the Sign of hexagram Abundance (Fullness) His:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Dui , Trigram Dui, the Joyous, the lake
   below Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

Zhen is movement; Li is flame, whose attribute is clarity. Clarity within, movement without - this produces greatness and abundance. The hexagram pictures a period of advanced civilization. However, the fact that development has reached a peak suggests that this extraordinary condition of abundance cannot be maintained permanently.

The Sequence
That which attains a place in which it is at home is sure to become great. Hence there follows the hexagram of ABUNDANCE. Abundance means greatness.

Miscellaneous notes:
Abundance means many occasions.

This hexagram is composed of Zhen, which strives upward, and Li, which also moves upward. The nuclear trigrams are Dui, the Joyous, the lake, and Xun, the Penetrating, the wind. Hence wind and water, and thunder and lightning, are together here and all this points to great power. Something of a climax is indicated in that Zhen, which is the more vigorous in movement, is above. While Shi He, Biting Through (21) deals with the problem of surmounting a hindrance, here the hindrance is already surmounted. Still, greatness at a pinnacle suggests the danger of regression. The light is darkened in varying degree by the nuclear trigram Xun, wood, contained within the hexagram. The hexagram is one of those referring to the mutability of all earthly things. This is most likely also the meaning of the saying, “Abundance means many occasions,” that is, occasions for care and sorrow.
the Judgement for hexagram Abundance (Fullness) His:

丰:亨,王假之,勿忧,宜日中。

Abundance has success.

The king attains abundance.
Be not sad.
Be like the sun at midday.




It is not given to every mortal to bring about a time of outstanding greatness and abundance. Only a born ruler of men is able to do it, because his will is directed to what is great. Such a time of abundance is usually brief. Therefore a sage might well feel sad in view of the decline that must follow. But such sadness foes not befit him. Only a man who is inwardly free of sorrow and care can lead in a time of abundance. He must be like the sun at midday, illuminating and gladdening everything under heaven.

Commentary on the Decision:

丰,大也。明以动,故丰。王假之,尚大也。勿忧宜日中,宜照天下也。日中则昃,月盈则食,天地盈虚,与时消息,而况人于人乎?况于鬼神乎?

Abundance means greatness. Clarity in movement, hence abundance.
“The king attains abundance.” In this way greatness is emphasized.
“Be not sad. Be like the sun at midday.” One should give light to the whole world.
When the sun stands at midday, it begins to set; when the moon is full, it begins to wane. The fullness and emptiness of heaven and earth wane and wax in the course of time. How much truer is this of men, or of spirits and gods!




Feng represents a time when clarity and progress bring about greatness and prosperity in public life. To achieve these, there is needed a strong and leading personality, drawing to itself others of like nature. Therefore it is not the relation of correspondence but that of congruity between the lines which must be taken into account (cf. the nine at the beginning and the nine in the fourth place, as well as the six in the second place and the six in the fifth place). But such a time of very great culture also carries hidden dangers. For according to the universal law of events, every increase is followed by decrease, and all fullness is followed by emptiness. There is only one means of making foundations firm in times of greatness, namely, spiritual expansion. Every sort of limitation brings a bitter retribution in its train. Abundance can endure only if ever larger groups are brought to share in it, for only then can the movement continue without turning into its opposite.
the Image going with hexagram Abundance (Fullness) His:

雷电皆至,丰;君子以折狱致刑。

Both thunder and lightning come:
The image of Abundance.
Thus the superior man decides lawsuits
And carries out punishments.




This hexagram has a certain connection with Shih Ho, Biting Through (hexagram 21), in which thunder and lightning similarly appear together, but in the reverse order. In Biting Through, laws are laid down; here they are applied and enforced. Clarity [Li] within makes it possible to investigate the facts exactly, and shock [Zhen] without ensures a strict and precise carrying out of punishments.




the nuclear hexagram:
大过
28. Da Guo
Preponderance of the Great

v
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Dui , Trigram Dui, the Joyous, the lake
   below Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

Zhen is movement; Li is flame, whose attribute is clarity. Clarity within, movement without - this produces greatness and abundance. The hexagram pictures a period of advanced civilization. However, the fact that development has reached a peak suggests that this extraordinary condition of abundance cannot be maintained permanently.

The Sequence
That which attains a place in which it is at home is sure to become great. Hence there follows the hexagram of ABUNDANCE. Abundance means greatness.

Miscellaneous notes:
Abundance means many occasions.

This hexagram is composed of Zhen, which strives upward, and Li, which also moves upward. The nuclear trigrams are Dui, the Joyous, the lake, and Xun, the Penetrating, the wind. Hence wind and water, and thunder and lightning, are together here and all this points to great power. Something of a climax is indicated in that Zhen, which is the more vigorous in movement, is above. While Shi He, Biting Through (21) deals with the problem of surmounting a hindrance, here the hindrance is already surmounted. Still, greatness at a pinnacle suggests the danger of regression. The light is darkened in varying degree by the nuclear trigram Xun, wood, contained within the hexagram. The hexagram is one of those referring to the mutability of all earthly things. This is most likely also the meaning of the saying, “Abundance means many occasions,” that is, occasions for care and sorrow.


the Judgement:

丰:亨,王假之,勿忧,宜日中。

Abundance has success.

The king attains abundance.
Be not sad.
Be like the sun at midday.




It is not given to every mortal to bring about a time of outstanding greatness and abundance. Only a born ruler of men is able to do it, because his will is directed to what is great. Such a time of abundance is usually brief. Therefore a sage might well feel sad in view of the decline that must follow. But such sadness foes not befit him. Only a man who is inwardly free of sorrow and care can lead in a time of abundance. He must be like the sun at midday, illuminating and gladdening everything under heaven.

Commentary on the Decision:

丰,大也。明以动,故丰。王假之,尚大也。勿忧宜日中,宜照天下也。日中则昃,月盈则食,天地盈虚,与时消息,而况人于人乎?况于鬼神乎?

Abundance means greatness. Clarity in movement, hence abundance.
“The king attains abundance.” In this way greatness is emphasized.
“Be not sad. Be like the sun at midday.” One should give light to the whole world.
When the sun stands at midday, it begins to set; when the moon is full, it begins to wane. The fullness and emptiness of heaven and earth wane and wax in the course of time. How much truer is this of men, or of spirits and gods!
 



Feng represents a time when clarity and progress bring about greatness and prosperity in public life. To achieve these, there is needed a strong and leading personality, drawing to itself others of like nature. Therefore it is not the relation of correspondence but that of congruity between the lines which must be taken into account (cf. the nine at the beginning and the nine in the fourth place, as well as the six in the second place and the six in the fifth place). But such a time of very great culture also carries hidden dangers. For according to the universal law of events, every increase is followed by decrease, and all fullness is followed by emptiness. There is only one means of making foundations firm in times of greatness, namely, spiritual expansion. Every sort of limitation brings a bitter retribution in its train. Abundance can endure only if ever larger groups are brought to share in it, for only then can the movement continue without turning into its opposite.


the Image:

雷电皆至,丰;君子以折狱致刑。

Both thunder and lightning come:
The image of Abundance.
Thus the superior man decides lawsuits
And carries out punishments.




This hexagram has a certain connection with Shih Ho, Biting Through (hexagram 21), in which thunder and lightning similarly appear together, but in the reverse order. In Biting Through, laws are laid down; here they are applied and enforced. Clarity [Li] within makes it possible to investigate the facts exactly, and shock [Zhen] without ensures a strict and precise carrying out of punishments.


the Lines:


上六:丰其屋,蔀其家,闚其户,阒其无人,三岁不觌,凶。

Six at the top means:

His house is in a state of abundance.
He screens off his family.
He peers through the gate
And no longer perceives anyone.
For three years he sees nothing.
Misfortune.




This describes a man who because of his arrogance and obstinacy attains the opposite of what he strives for. He seeks abundance and splendor for his dwelling. He wishes at all odds to be master in his house, which so alienates his family that in the end he finds himself completely isolated.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六五:来章,有庆誉,吉。

Six in the fifth place means:

Lines are coming,
Blessing and fame draw near.
Good fortune.




The ruler is modest and therefore open to the counsel of able men. Thus he is surrounded by men who suggest to him the lines of action. This brings blessing, fame, and good fortune to him and all the people.


九四:丰其蔀,日中见斗,遇其夷主,吉。

Nine in the fourth place means:

The curtain is of such fullness
That the polestars can be seen at noon.
He meets his ruler, who is of like kind.
Good fortune.




Here the darkness is already decreasing, therefore interrelated elements come together. Here too the complement must be found - the necessary wisdom to complement joy of action. Then everything will go well. The complementary factor postulated here is the reverse of the one in the first line. In the latter, wisdom is to be complemented by energy, while here energy is complemented by wisdom.


九三:丰其沛,日中见沬,折其右肱,无咎。

Nine in the third place means:

The underbrush is of such abundance
That the small stars can be seen at noon.
He breaks his right arm . No blame.




The image is that of a progressive covering over of the sun. Here the eclipse reaches totality, therefore even the small stars can be seen at noon.
In the sphere of social relationships, this means that the prince is now so eclipsed that even the most insignificant persons can push themselves into the foreground. This makes it impossible for an able man, though he might be the right hand of the ruler, to undertake anything. It is as though his arm were broken, but he is not to blame for being thus hindered in action.


六二:丰其蔀,日中见斗,往得疑疾,有孚发若,吉。

Six in the second place means:

The curtain is of such fullness
That the polestars can be seen at noon.
Through going one meets with mistrust and hate.
If one rouses him through truth,
Good fortune comes.




It often happens that plots and party intrigues, which have the darkening effect of an eclipse of the sun, come between a ruler intent on great achievement and the man who could effect great undertakings. Then, instead of the sun, we see the northern stars in the sky. The ruler is overshadowed by a party that has usurped power. If a man at such a time were to try to take energetic measures, he would encounter only mistrust and envy, which would prohibit all movement. The essential thing then is to hold inwardly to the power of truth, which in the end is so strong that it exerts an invisible influence on the ruler, so that all goes well.


初九:遇其配主,虽旬无咎,往有尚。

Nine at the beginning means:

When a man meets his destined ruler,
They can be together ten days,
And it is not a mistake.
Going meets with recognition.




To bring about a time of abundance, a union of clarity with energetic movement is needed. Two individuals possessed of these two attributes are suited to each other, and even if they spend an entire cycle of time together during the period of abundance, it will not be too long, nor is it a mistake. Therefore one may go forth, in order to make one's influence felt; it will meet with recognition.