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Fu Xi Earlier Heaven bagua arrangement
易經
the Hexagrams, Index

In case you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex page.

Ancient Chinese coins

易經
het Hexagrammenboek

In case you prefer to ask a question or if you like to read a specific hexagram, then use this idex.






Table 1,

Select a hexagram by combining the trigrams:


Trigrammemindeling
Trigrammemindeling


Table 2,

Select a hexagram from the drop-down list.
The hexagrams are ordered by number:









42. Yi

Increase



<
上九:莫益之,或击之,立心勿恒,凶。

Nine at the top means:

He brings increase to no one.
Indeed, someone even strikes him.
He does not keep his heart constantly steady.
Misfortune.



The meaning here is that through renunciation those in high place should bring increase to those below. By neglecting this duty and helping no one, they in turn lose the furthering influence of others and soon find themselves alone. In this way they invite attacks. An attitude not permanently in harmony with the demands of the time will necessarily bring misfortune with it.
Confucius says about this line:
The superior man sets his person at rest before he moves; he composes his mind before he speaks; he makes his relations firm before he asks for something. By attending to these three matters, the superior man gains complete security. But if a man is brusque in his movements, others will not cooperate. If he is agitated in his word, they awaken no echo in others. If he asks for something without having fist established relations, it will not be given to him. If no one is with him, those who would harm him draw near.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:有孚惠心,勿问元吉。有孚惠我德。

Nine in the fifth place means:

If in truth you have a kind heart, ask not.
Supreme good fortune.
Truly, kindness will be recognized as your virtue.



True kindness does not count upon nor ask about merit and gratitude but acts from inner necessity. And such a truly kind heart finds itself rewarded in being recognized, and thus the beneficent influence will spread unhindered.
the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
六四:中行,告公从。利用为依迁国。

Six in the fourth place means:

If you walk in the middle
And report the prince,
He will follow.
It furthers one to be used
In the removal of the capital.



It is important that there should be men who mediate between leaders and followers. These should be disinterested people, especially in times of increase, since the benefit is to spread from the leader to the people. Nothing of this benefit should be held back in a selfish way; it should really reach those for whom it is intended. This sort of intermediary, who also exercises a good influence on the leader, is especially important in times when it is a matter of great undertakings, decisive for the future and requiring the inner assent of all concerned.
六三:益之用凶事,无咎。有孚中行,告公用圭。

Six in the third place means:

One is enriched through unfortunate events.
No blame, if you are sincere
And walk in the middle,
And report with a seal to the prince.



A time of blessing and enrichment has such powerful effects that even events ordinarily unfortunate must turn out to the advantage of those affected by them. These persons become free of error, and by acting in harmony with truth they gain such inner authority that they exert influence as if sanctioned by the letter and seal.
the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六二:或益之,十朋之龟弗克违,永贞吉。王用享于帝,吉。

Six in the second place means:

Someone does indeed increase him;
Ten pairs of tortoises cannot oppose it.
Constant perseverance brings good fortune.
The king presents him before God.
Good fortune.



A man brings about real increase by producing in himself the conditions for it, that it, through receptivity to and love of the good. Thus the thing for which he strives comes of itself, with the inevitability of natural law. Where increase is thus in harmony with the highest laws of the universe, it cannot be prevented by any constellation of accidents. But everything depends on his not letting unexpected good fortune make him heedless; he must make it his own through inner strength an steadfastness. Then he acquires meaning before God and man, and can accomplish something for the good of the world.
the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
初九:利用为大作,元吉,无咎。

Nine at the beginning means:

It furthers one to accomplish great deeds.
Supreme good fortune. No blame.



If great help comes to a man from on high, this increased strength must be used to achieve something great for which he might otherwise never have found energy, or readiness to take responsibility. Great good fortune is produced by selflessness, and in bringing about great good fortune, he remains free of reproach.
the Sign of hexagram Increase xis:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Qian , the Creative, the heaven
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

The idea of increase is expressed in the fact that the strong lowest line of the upper trigram has sunk down and taken its place under the lower trigram. This conception also expresses the fundamental idea on which the Book of Changes is based. To rule truly is to serve. A sacrifice of the higher element that produces an increase of the lower is called an out-and-out increase: it indicates the spirit that alone has power to help the world.

The sequence:
If decrease goes on and on, it is certain to bring about increase. Hence there follows the hexagram of Increase.

Miscellaneous notes:
The hexagrams of Decrease and Increase are the beginning of flowering and of decline.

The two hexagrams with which part II begins, namely, Influence (31) and Duration (32), after ten changes become the hexagrams of Decrease (41) y and Increase (42) - just as the first two hexagrams of part I, the Creative and the Receptive, after ten changes become the hexagrams of Tai, Peace (11) and Pi, Standstill (12) w. Peace and Standstill have an inner connection with Decrease and Increase, because through the transference of a strong line - from the lower to the upper trigram, Decrease develops from Peace, and through the transference of a strong line from the upper to the lower trigram, Increase develops from Standstill. Thus when in Pi, Standstill, the lowest line of the upper trigram is transferred to the bottom, the resultant new hexagram is Yi, Increase.
The fact that continuous decrease finally leads to a change into its opposite, increase, lies in the course of nature, as can be perceived in the waning and waxing of the moon and in all of the regularly recurring processes of nature.
The hexagram consists of the primary trigrams of wind and thunder, which increase each other. The decrease above and the strengthening below produce a stability that means increase for the whole. This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one.

Appended judgments:
When Bao Xi’s clan was gone, there sprang up the clan of the Divine Husbandman. He split a piece of wood for a plowshare and bent a piece of wood for the plow handle, and taught the whole world the advantage of laying open the earth with a plow. He probably took this from the hexagram of Increase.
Both parts of the hexagram have wood for a symbol. The outer trigram means penetration, the inner means movement. Movement combined with penetration has brought the greatest increase to the world.
Increase shows fullness of character. Increase shows the growth of fullness without artifices. Thus Increase furthers what is useful.
the Judgement for hexagram Increase xis:

益:利有攸往,利涉大川。

Increase. It furthers one
To undertake something.
It furthers one to cross the great water.



Sacrifice on the part of those above for the increase of those below fills the people with a sense of joy and gratitude that is extremely valuable for the flowering of the commonwealth. When people are thus devoted to their leaders, undertakings are possible, and even difficult and dangerous enterprises will succeed. Therefore in such times of progress and successful development it is necessary to work and make the best use of time. This time resembles that of the marriage of heaven and earth, when the earth partakes of the creative power of heaven, forming and bringing forth living beings. The time of Increase does not endure, therefore it must be utilized while it lasts.

Commentary on the Decision:

益,损上益下,民说无疆,自上下下,其道大光。利有攸往,中正有庆。利涉大川,木道乃行。益动而巽,日进无疆。天施地生,其益无方。凡益之道,与时偕行。

Increase. Decreasing what is above
And increasing what is below;
Then the joy of the people is boundless.
What is above places itself under what is below:
This is the way of the great light.
And it furthers one to undertake something:
Central, correct, and blessed.
It furthers one to cross the great water:
The way of wood creates success.
Increase moves, gentle and mild:
Daily progress without limit.
Heaven dispenses, earth brings forth:
Thereby things increase in all directions.
The way of Increase everywhere
Proceeds in harmony with the time.



The name of the hexagram is explained on the basis of its structure: increase of what is below at the cost of what is above is out-and-out increase, because it benefits the whole people. The fourth line, in descending from the upper trigram to the lowest place in the lower trigram, shows a self-abnegation that gives proof of great clarity. In times of Increase it is favorable to undertake something, for the rulers of the hexagram, the nine in the fifth place and the six in the second, are centrally placed and correct - a strong line in a strong place and a weak line in a weak place. Crossing of the great water is suggested by the upper trigram, Xun, which means wood and so gives the idea of a ship, while the lower trigram guarantees the movement of the ship. The attributes of the trigrams Zhen, movement, and Xun, gentleness, guarantee lasting progress.
The idea of increase in the cosmic sphere is expressed through the fact that the first line of heaven (Qian) places itself below the earth (Kun), this gives rise to the trigram Zhen, in which all beings come into existence. This process of increase also is bound up with the right time, within which it comes to consummation.
the Image going with hexagram Increase xis:

风雷,益;君子以见善则迁,有过则改。

Wind and thunder: the image of Increase.
Thus the superior man:
If he sees good, he imitates it;
If he has faults, he rids himself of them.



While observing how thunder and wind increase and strengthen each other, a man can not the way to self-increase and self-improvement. When he discovers good in others, he should imitate it and thus make everything on earth his own. If he perceives something bad in himself, let him rid himself of it. In this way he becomes free of evil. This ethical change represents the most important increase of personality.







the nuclear hexagram:

23. Bo
Splitting Apart

!
the Sign:

the primary trigrams:
   above Trigram Xun , the Gentle, the wind
   below Trigram Zhen , the Arousing, the thunder

the nuclear trigrams:
   above Trigram Gen , Keeping Still, the mountain
   below Trigram Kun , the Receptive, the earth

the enveloping trigrams:
   above Trigram Qian , the Creative, the heaven
   below Trigram Li , the Clinging, the fire

The idea of increase is expressed in the fact that the strong lowest line of the upper trigram has sunk down and taken its place under the lower trigram. This conception also expresses the fundamental idea on which the Book of Changes is based. To rule truly is to serve. A sacrifice of the higher element that produces an increase of the lower is called an out-and-out increase: it indicates the spirit that alone has power to help the world.

The sequence:
If decrease goes on and on, it is certain to bring about increase. Hence there follows the hexagram of Increase.

Miscellaneous notes:
The hexagrams of Decrease and Increase are the beginning of flowering and of decline.

The two hexagrams with which part II begins, namely, Influence (31) and Duration (32), after ten changes become the hexagrams of Decrease (41) y and Increase (42) - just as the first two hexagrams of part I, the Creative and the Receptive, after ten changes become the hexagrams of Tai, Peace (11) and Pi, Standstill (12) w. Peace and Standstill have an inner connection with Decrease and Increase, because through the transference of a strong line - from the lower to the upper trigram, Decrease develops from Peace, and through the transference of a strong line from the upper to the lower trigram, Increase develops from Standstill. Thus when in Pi, Standstill, the lowest line of the upper trigram is transferred to the bottom, the resultant new hexagram is Yi, Increase.
The fact that continuous decrease finally leads to a change into its opposite, increase, lies in the course of nature, as can be perceived in the waning and waxing of the moon and in all of the regularly recurring processes of nature.
The hexagram consists of the primary trigrams of wind and thunder, which increase each other. The decrease above and the strengthening below produce a stability that means increase for the whole. This hexagram is the inverse of the preceding one.

Appended judgments:
When Bao Xi’s clan was gone, there sprang up the clan of the Divine Husbandman. He split a piece of wood for a plowshare and bent a piece of wood for the plow handle, and taught the whole world the advantage of laying open the earth with a plow. He probably took this from the hexagram of Increase.
Both parts of the hexagram have wood for a symbol. The outer trigram means penetration, the inner means movement. Movement combined with penetration has brought the greatest increase to the world.
Increase shows fullness of character. Increase shows the growth of fullness without artifices. Thus Increase furthers what is useful.


the Judgement:

益:利有攸往,利涉大川。

Increase. It furthers one
To undertake something.
It furthers one to cross the great water.



Sacrifice on the part of those above for the increase of those below fills the people with a sense of joy and gratitude that is extremely valuable for the flowering of the commonwealth. When people are thus devoted to their leaders, undertakings are possible, and even difficult and dangerous enterprises will succeed. Therefore in such times of progress and successful development it is necessary to work and make the best use of time. This time resembles that of the marriage of heaven and earth, when the earth partakes of the creative power of heaven, forming and bringing forth living beings. The time of Increase does not endure, therefore it must be utilized while it lasts.

Commentary on the Decision:

益,损上益下,民说无疆,自上下下,其道大光。利有攸往,中正有庆。利涉大川,木道乃行。益动而巽,日进无疆。天施地生,其益无方。凡益之道,与时偕行。

Increase. Decreasing what is above
And increasing what is below;
Then the joy of the people is boundless.
What is above places itself under what is below:
This is the way of the great light.
And it furthers one to undertake something:
Central, correct, and blessed.
It furthers one to cross the great water:
The way of wood creates success.
Increase moves, gentle and mild:
Daily progress without limit.
Heaven dispenses, earth brings forth:
Thereby things increase in all directions.
The way of Increase everywhere
Proceeds in harmony with the time.



The name of the hexagram is explained on the basis of its structure: increase of what is below at the cost of what is above is out-and-out increase, because it benefits the whole people. The fourth line, in descending from the upper trigram to the lowest place in the lower trigram, shows a self-abnegation that gives proof of great clarity. In times of Increase it is favorable to undertake something, for the rulers of the hexagram, the nine in the fifth place and the six in the second, are centrally placed and correct - a strong line in a strong place and a weak line in a weak place. Crossing of the great water is suggested by the upper trigram, Xun, which means wood and so gives the idea of a ship, while the lower trigram guarantees the movement of the ship. The attributes of the trigrams Zhen, movement, and Xun, gentleness, guarantee lasting progress.
The idea of increase in the cosmic sphere is expressed through the fact that the first line of heaven (Qian) places itself below the earth (Kun), this gives rise to the trigram Zhen, in which all beings come into existence. This process of increase also is bound up with the right time, within which it comes to consummation.


the Image:

风雷,益;君子以见善则迁,有过则改。

Wind and thunder: the image of Increase.
Thus the superior man:
If he sees good, he imitates it;
If he has faults, he rids himself of them.



While observing how thunder and wind increase and strengthen each other, a man can not the way to self-increase and self-improvement. When he discovers good in others, he should imitate it and thus make everything on earth his own. If he perceives something bad in himself, let him rid himself of it. In this way he becomes free of evil. This ethical change represents the most important increase of personality.





the Lines:


上九:莫益之,或击之,立心勿恒,凶。

Nine at the top means:

He brings increase to no one.
Indeed, someone even strikes him.
He does not keep his heart constantly steady.
Misfortune.



The meaning here is that through renunciation those in high place should bring increase to those below. By neglecting this duty and helping no one, they in turn lose the furthering influence of others and soon find themselves alone. In this way they invite attacks. An attitude not permanently in harmony with the demands of the time will necessarily bring misfortune with it.
Confucius says about this line:
The superior man sets his person at rest before he moves; he composes his mind before he speaks; he makes his relations firm before he asks for something. By attending to these three matters, the superior man gains complete security. But if a man is brusque in his movements, others will not cooperate. If he is agitated in his word, they awaken no echo in others. If he asks for something without having fist established relations, it will not be given to him. If no one is with him, those who would harm him draw near.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
九五:有孚惠心,勿问元吉。有孚惠我德。

Nine in the fifth place means:

If in truth you have a kind heart, ask not.
Supreme good fortune.
Truly, kindness will be recognized as your virtue.



True kindness does not count upon nor ask about merit and gratitude but acts from inner necessity. And such a truly kind heart finds itself rewarded in being recognized, and thus the beneficent influence will spread unhindered.


the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
六四:中行,告公从。利用为依迁国。

Six in the fourth place means:

If you walk in the middle
And report the prince,
He will follow.
It furthers one to be used
In the removal of the capital.



It is important that there should be men who mediate between leaders and followers. These should be disinterested people, especially in times of increase, since the benefit is to spread from the leader to the people. Nothing of this benefit should be held back in a selfish way; it should really reach those for whom it is intended. This sort of intermediary, who also exercises a good influence on the leader, is especially important in times when it is a matter of great undertakings, decisive for the future and requiring the inner assent of all concerned.


六三:益之用凶事,无咎。有孚中行,告公用圭。

Six in the third place means:

One is enriched through unfortunate events.
No blame, if you are sincere
And walk in the middle,
And report with a seal to the prince.



A time of blessing and enrichment has such powerful effects that even events ordinarily unfortunate must turn out to the advantage of those affected by them. These persons become free of error, and by acting in harmony with truth they gain such inner authority that they exert influence as if sanctioned by the letter and seal.


the yellow circle is indicating this line as the governing ruler of the hexagram
六二:或益之,十朋之龟弗克违,永贞吉。王用享于帝,吉。

Six in the second place means:

Someone does indeed increase him;
Ten pairs of tortoises cannot oppose it.
Constant perseverance brings good fortune.
The king presents him before God.
Good fortune.



A man brings about real increase by producing in himself the conditions for it, that it, through receptivity to and love of the good. Thus the thing for which he strives comes of itself, with the inevitability of natural law. Where increase is thus in harmony with the highest laws of the universe, it cannot be prevented by any constellation of accidents. But everything depends on his not letting unexpected good fortune make him heedless; he must make it his own through inner strength an steadfastness. Then he acquires meaning before God and man, and can accomplish something for the good of the world.


the yellow square is indicating this line as the constituting ruler of the hexagram
初九:利用为大作,元吉,无咎。

Nine at the beginning means:

It furthers one to accomplish great deeds.
Supreme good fortune. No blame.



If great help comes to a man from on high, this increased strength must be used to achieve something great for which he might otherwise never have found energy, or readiness to take responsibility. Great good fortune is produced by selflessness, and in bringing about great good fortune, he remains free of reproach.